Wednesday, July 24, 2013

1307.5861 (John Hutchinson et al.)

Icezones instead of firewalls: extended entanglement beyond the event

John Hutchinson, Dejan Stojkovic
We examine two effects that modify the expected entanglement of states near a horizon, each of which suggests that there is no apparent need for black hole firewalls. Quantum mechanics tells us that while the black hole exists, unitary evolution maximally entangles a late mode located just outside the horizon with a combination of early radiation and black hole states, instead of either of them separately. Due to this extended entanglement, as the black hole ages, the local Rindler horizon is modified out to macroscopic distances from the black hole. Fundamentally non-local physics is not necessary to explain this result. We propose an infrared mechanism called {\it icezone} that is mediated by low energy interacting modes and acts near any event horizon to entangle states separated by long distances. Another aspect of the same mechanism is the known effect of entanglement degradation of two modes near a black hole. The Hawking effect, namely random thermal noise, very efficiently destroys quantum correlations for an accelerated observer near the horizon. This effect severely limits the range of observations that an observer, especially one who jumps into a black hole after measuring the late and early modes, could perform in the vicinity of a black hole. Together the two effects indicate that the equivalence principle is preserved at a quantum level.
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